Multi-client distributed blind quantum computation with the Qline architecture

Universal blind quantum computing allows users with minimal quantum resources to delegate a quantum computation to a remote quantum server, while keeping intrinsically hidden input, algorithm, and outcome. State-of-art experimental demonstrations of such a protocol have only involved one client. However, an increasing number of multi-party algorithms, e.g. federated machine learning, require the collaboration of multiple clients to carry out a given joint computation. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a lightweight multi-client blind quantum computation protocol based on a recently proposed linear quantum network configuration (Qline). Our protocol originality resides in three main strengths: scalability, since we eliminate the need for each client to have its own trusted source or measurement device, low-loss, by optimizing the orchestration of classical communication between each client and server through fast classical electronic control, and compatibility with distributed architectures while remaining intact even against correlated attacks of server nodes and malicious clients.

B. Polacchi, D. Leichtle, L. Limongi, G. Carvacho, G. Milani, N. Spagnolo, M. Kaplan, F. Sciarrino, E. Kashefi. Multi-client distributed blind quantum computation with the Qline architectur, Nature Communications 14, 7743 (2023) [arXiv:2306.05195]