Interferometric imaging of amplitude and phase of spatial biphoton states

High-dimensional biphoton states are promising resources for quantum applications, ranging from high-dimensional quantum communications to quantum imaging. A pivotal task is fully characterising these states, which is generally time-consuming and not scalable when projective measurement approaches are adopted. However, new advances in coincidence imaging technologies allow for overcoming these limitations by parallelising multiple measurements. Here, we introduce biphoton digital holography, in analogy to off-axis digital holography, where coincidence imaging of the superposition of an unknown state with a reference one is used to perform quantum state tomography. We apply this approach to single photons emitted by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a nonlinear crystal when the pump photons possess various quantum states. The proposed reconstruction technique allows for a more efficient (3 order-of-magnitude faster) and reliable (an average fidelity of 87\%)  characterisation of states in arbitrary spatial modes bases, compared with previously performed experiments. Multi-photon digital holography may pave the route toward efficient and accurate computational ghost imaging and high-dimensional quantum information processing.

This work was produced at the Advanced Research Complex (ARC) facility of Ottawa in collaboration with Nazanin Dehghan and Dr. Alessio D’Errico, and under the supervision of Prof. Ebrahim Karimi.

D. Zia, N. Dehghan, A. D’Errico, F. Sciarrino, E. Karimi. Interferometric imaging of amplitude and phase of spatial biphoton states, Nature Photonics (2023) [arXiv:2301.13046]