Boson Sampling is a task that is conjectured to be computationally hard for a classical computer, but which can be efficiently solved by linear-optical interferometers with Fock state inputs. Significant advances have been reported in the last few years, with demonstrations of small- and medium-scale devices, as well as implementations of variants such as Gaussian Boson Sampling. Besides the relevance of this class of computational models in the quest for unambiguous experimental demonstrations of quantum advantage, recent results have also proposed the first applications for hybrid quantum computing. Here, we introduce the adoption of non-linear photon–photon interactions in the Boson Sampling framework, and analyze the enhancement in complexity via an explicit linear-optical simulation scheme. By extending the computational expressivity of Boson Sampling, the introduction of non-linearities promises to disclose novel functionalities for this class of quantum devices. Hence, our results are expected to lead to new applications of near-term, restricted photonic quantum computers.
N. Spagnolo, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, F. Sciarrino. Non-linear Boson Sampling, npj Quantum Information, 9, 3 (2023)