Quantum metrology is one of the most promising applications of quantum technologies. The aim of this research field is the estimation of unknown parameters exploiting quantum resources, whose application can lead to enhanced performances with respect to classical strategies. Several physical quantum systems can be employed to develop quantum sensors, and photonic systems represent ideal probes for a large number of metrological tasks. Here, the authors review the basic concepts behind quantum metrology and then focus on the application of photonic technology for this task, with particular attention to phase estimation. The authors describe the current state of the art in the field in terms of platforms and quantum resources. Furthermore, the authors present the research area of multiparameter quantum metrology, where multiple parameters have to be estimated at the same time. The authors conclude by discussing the current experimental and theoretical challenges and the open questions toward implementation of photonic quantum sensors with quantum-enhanced performances in the presence of noise.
Emanuele Polino, Mauro Valeri, Nicolò Spagnolo, and Fabio Sciarrino, Photonic quantum metrology, AVS Quantum Sci. 2, 024703 (2020)