In a Bell experiment, it is natural to seek a causal account of correlations wherein only a common cause acts on the outcomes. For this causal structure, Bell inequality violations can be explained only if causal dependencies are modeled as intrinsically quantum. There also exists a vast landscape of causal structures beyond Bell that can witness nonclassicality, in some cases without even requiring free external inputs. Here, we undertake a photonic experiment realizing one such example: the triangle causal network, consisting of three measurement stations pairwise connected by common causes and no external inputs. To demonstrate the nonclassicality of the data, we adapt and improve three known techniques: (i) a machine-learning-based heuristic test, (ii) a data-seeded inflation technique generating polynomial Bell-type inequalities and (iii) entropic inequalities. The demonstrated experimental and data analysis tools are broadly applicable paving the way for future networks of growing complexity.
E. Polino, D. Poderini, G. Rodari, I. Agresti, A. Suprano, G. Carvacho, E. Wolfe, A. Canabarro, G. Moreno, G. Milani, R. W Spekkens, R. Chaves and F. Sciarrino. Experimental nonclassicality in a causal network without assuming freedom of choice. Nat Commun 14, 909 (2023)